Developed in conjunction with Ext-Joom.com

Get Adobe Flash player

3rd 2020E

 

CONTENT

CURRENT PROBLEMS

Chernyshov L.N., Zbritskiy A.A., Ivchik T.A.,

Conceptual framework for the development of the National Qualifications Framework for the period until 2030 … 3

EFFICIENCY AND QUALITY

Vladimirova I.L., Kallaur G.Yu., Tsygankova A.A., Papikian L.M., Tensina P.A.

Digitization as a factor for productivity gains in the construction industry … 13

Lukmanova I.G., Sarchenko V.I.Ladygina E.E.

Customer orientation of the enterprise is the most important reserve for increasing competitiveness … 24

INVESTMENT ACTIVITY

Serov V.M.

On the structure of the methodological document, the provisions and methods for assessing the economic efficiency of investment and construction activities … 33

Batoeva E.V., Zorina E.S.

Factors depending on effectiveness of investment to objects of commercial

real estate … 50

HOUSING CONSTRUCTION AND HOUSING AND COMMUNAL SERVICES

Gorbunov A.A., Buyanov O.V.

On the experience of developing low-rise housing construction

on the basis of entrepreneurship … 62

REGIONAL ECONOMY

Khrustalev B.B., Antipov V. A.

Forming an intra-company strategy construction complex

on the example of Penza regions in the conditions of economic crisis … 68

Conceptual framework for the development of the National Qualifications Framework for the period until 2030

Chernyshov L.N., Council on professional qualifications in housing and communal services, Moscow, Russia; e-mail: leo.chern@yandex.ru

Zbritskiy A.A., Ivchik T.A., the Institute for STR GASIS National Research University «Higher school of Economics», Moscow, Russia; zaagasis@yandex.ru

Keywords: production automation, accreditation, validation, demo exam, information and communication resources, career, qualification , labor market monitoring, national qualifications system, online exam, educational programs, qualifications, assessment tools, professional standards, employee, employer, robotics, education, digitalization.

The article presents the main results of the implementation of the first stage of the formation of the National System of Professional Skills in the country, as well as objective and subjective factors of the need to improve the methods and tools of its operation in the conditions of introduction of modern forms of organization and technology of labor, the use of elements of automation, robotics and digitization of production. The authors justify the need to introduce a new stage of development of qualifications, cite measures for its implementation, as well as reveal the essence of the information-communication resource created at the federal level, which on the one hand should provide the NSC participants with reliable and timely information and services in the field of professional qualifications, and on the other hand ensures that their costs are minimized.

References

1. Chernyshov L.N., Zbritskiy A.A., Ivchik T.A. Conceptual frameworks form systems of qualifications in the treatment of waste production and consumption // Ekonomika stroitel'stva [Economics of Construction], 2019, no 6, pp. 38-46 (in Russ.).

2. Chernyshov L.N., Zbritskiy A.A., Ivchik T.A. Organizational and legal mechanisms to reduce the risks of applying professional standards in the example of the utility sector //Ekonomika stroitel'stva [Economics of Construction], 2019, no 5, pp. 3-12 (in Russ.).

3. Chernyshov L.N., Zbritskiy A.A., Schreiber A.K., Ivchik T.A. Modern tools for regulating labor relations in housing and communal services //Ekonomika stroitel'stva [Economics of Construction], 2018, no 6, pp. 3-12 (in Russ.).

4. Zbritskiy A.A., Chernyshov L.N., Ivchik T.A. Organizational and methodological problems of independent evaluation system of qualifications in housing and communal services //Ekonomika stroitel'stva [Economics of Construction], 2017, no 2, pp. 3-12 (in Russ.).

5. Agapitov S.N. Development of professional standards in housing and communal services is a task of employer associations //Ekonomika stroitel'stva [Economics of Construction], 2013, no 6, pp. 28-32 (in Russ.).

6. Chernyshov L.N. Methodological problems of training and retraining of employees for the sphere of housing and communal services //Ekonomika stroitel'stva [Economics of Construction], 2014, no 6, pp. 63-75 (in Russ.).

7. Zbritskiy A.A., Ivchik T.A., Mironova L.V., Schreiber A.K. Professional standards as a basis for improving the quality and prestige of the highly skilled workers leading to careers in construction production //Ekonomika stroitel'stva [Economics of Construction], 2015, no 4, pp. 3-8 (in Russ.).

8. Blinov A. A., Ugryumova N. V. Managerial Aspects of Socio-Economic systems of Housing and communal services // Journal of AGUAS. Science, education, Economics. Series: Economics, 2015, no 1 (11) (in Russ.).

9. Tsaplin E.V., Volkova V.S. Evolution of housing and communal services reformation in 1991-2017 years //Ekonomika stroitel'stva [Economics of Construction], 2017, no 1, pp. 34-44 (in Russ.).

10. Razueva O. V. Improvement of enterprise management in the housing and communal services // Problems of modern economy, 2015, no 24 (in Russ.).

11. Poklonova E.V., Uskova. P.A. Housing Market: the state and problems // Modern trends in Economics and management: a new look, 2015, no 37-2 (in Russ.).

12. Chernyshov L.N. Methodology of professional standards at enterprises of housing and communal services //Ekonomika stroitel'stva [Economics of Construction], 2016, no 5, pp. 22-31 (in Russ.).

Digitization as a factor for productivity gains in the construction industry

Vladimirova I.L., Kallaur G.Yu., Tsygankova A.A., Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow, Russia; e-mail: kaf-stroy@yandex.ru

Papikian L.M., Representative Office Thermaltake Technology, Moscow, Russia

Tensina P.A., «KPMG», Moscow, Russia

Keywords: digitization, technologies, automation, productivity, enterprises, construction industry, state support.

The paper provides a comparative analysis of economy digitization level in Russia and the leading countries, as well as a review of state support instruments and regulation of the digital transformation of all economic sectors processes. Factors limiting digitization and automation of Russian enterprises in construction industry are identified. The authors highlight and consider key aspects of a pilot program to support implementation of digital technologies and automation at enterprises of non-primary industries, including construction, which is planned to be developed as part of the national project "Labor productivity and employment support". Based on the analysis results, specific technologies of digital economy with regard to the needs, types and characteristics of enterprises in construction industry are proposed to be included into the pilot program, as well as general recommendations for making the program effective are formulated.

References

1. Papikian L.M. The role of construction in territorial development: new dimensions // Sovremennaya yekonomika: problemy i resheniya [Modern economy: problems and solutions],2016, no 2 (74), pp. 86-99 (in Russ.).

2. Aptekman A., Kalabin V., Klintsov V., Kuznetsova E., Kulagin V., Yasenovets I. Tsifrovaya Rossiya: novaya real’nost’. Otchet McKinsey [Digital Russia: a new reality. Report Digital McKinsey],2017, pp. 133 (in Russ.).

3. The Global Innovation Index 2018: Energizing the World with Innovation / S. Dutta, B. Lanvin, S. Wunsch-Vincent. – Cornell University, INSEAD, and the World Intellectual Property Organization, 2018. – 430 с.

4. A N Dmitriev, G Yu Kallaur, L M Papikian, Digital methods of managing investment and construction projects as a factor of sustainable territorial development // The IX School-Seminar of Young Russian Scientists "Problems of Sustainable Regional Development", dedicated to the 70th anniversary of Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Arnold Kirillovich Tulokhonov. 3–7 July 2019, Ulan-Ude, Russian Federation.

5. Vladimirova I.L., Bareshenkova K.A., Kallaur G.Yu. Digital methods of real estate asset lifecycle management // Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management. Volume 6, Issue 1, 2018.

6. Kallaur G.Yu. Investment justification in information modelling technologies // Yekonomika stroitel'stva [Economics of Construction], 2018, no 1 (49). pp. 27-38 (in Russ.).

7. Eroshkin S.Yu., Kallaur G.Yu., Papikian L.M. Integrated use of BIM-technologies for project management//Vestnik MGTU “Stankin” [Vestnik MSTU «STANKIN»], 2017, no 4 (43), pp. 125-130 (in Russ.).

8. Eroshkin S.Y., Kallaur G.Y., Papikian L.M. Lean construction and BIM: complementing each other for better project management // Review of Business and Economics Studies. – 2016. – Т. 4. – № 4. – С. 17-22.

9. Dmitriev A.N., Vladimirova I.L., Kallaur G.Y., Tsygankova A.A. Approaches to classifying building innovations while implementing information modeling and project management. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review. 2019. Т. 12. № 2.

10, Pankratov O.E., Pankratov E.P. Problems of increasing the investment and economic potential of construction companies // Yekonomika stroitel'stva [Economics of Construction],2017, no 5 (47), pp. 3-17 (in Russ.).

Customer orientation of the enterprise is the most important reserve for increasing competitiveness

Lukmanova I.G. State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University), Moscow, Russia; e-mail:lukmanova@mgsu.ruSarchenko V.I.,Siberian Federal UniversityKrasnoyarsk, Russia; e-mailbs-serge@yandex.ruLadygina E.E.EKKO-ROS Moscow, Russia; e-mail:katyaladigina@mail.ru

Keywords: a customer-oriented approach, the level of customer focus on the price of consumption, the relationship of the stages of the life cycle of construction products and client status, the dependence of competitiveness on the level of customer focus.

The article considers the problem of ensuring the competitiveness of a construction company, and proves the importance of a customer-oriented approach as the main reserve for increasing the competitiveness of a construction company. The change in the status of the client, depending on the life cycle of construction products, is analyzed. It is determined that in the process of ensuring the competitiveness of construction products in the cost aspect, it is necessary to use the indicator «price of consumption». An action plan is proposed to increase the level of customer focus and, accordingly, the competitiveness of the enterprise. The developed economic and mathematical model of the dependence of competitiveness on the level of customer focus is given, which makes it possible to quantitatively determine the expected increase in the competitiveness of the enterprise from increasing its customer focus.

References

1. Ladygina E.E. A conceptual model for the formation and assessment of the level of customer orientation of enterprises // Vestnik MGSU, 2017, no. 3, pp. 284-293 (in Russ.).

2. Lukmanova IG, Ladygina EE, A conceptual model for ensuring the competitiveness of an enterprise in a customer-oriented market // Real Estate: Economics, Management. - M., 2016, no. 2, pp.25-32 (in Russ,),

3. Lukmanova I.G. Conceptual and methodological approach to creating an integrated system for ensuring quality, environmental friendliness and safety in construction // Industrial and civil construction, 2014, no. 4, pp.29-33 (in Russ.).

4. Lukmanova I.G. Ladygina EE, Client-oriented approach to ensuring the competitiveness of enterprises // Technology of the textile industry, 2017., no. 2 (SCOPUS). pp. 57-61 (in Russ.).

5. Sarchenko V.I., Sarchenko M.V. Ladygina EE, Taking into account consumer preferences as the main condition for a customer-oriented housing market // Economics and Entrepreneurship. - M., 2016, no. 7 (72), pp. 438-443 (in Russ.).

6. Sarchenko, V.I. The normative-factor approach in the development of a methodology for measuring synthetic categories of comfort in urban areas / V.I. Sarchenko, S.A. Hirevich //Ekonomika stroitel'stva [Economics of Construction], 2016, no. 4 (40), pp. 23-31 (in Russ.).

7. Sarchenko, V.I. Determination of the economic essence of the formation of a high-quality urban environment / V.I. Sarchenko, S.A. Hirevich // Problems of the modern economy. 2016, no. 2 (58), pp. 182-186 (in Russ.).

8. Sarchenko, V.I. Organizational and economic model for the development of urban areas with hidden potential / V.I. Sarchenko //Ekonomika stroitel'stva [Economics of Construction], 2015, no. 2 (32), pp. 36-41 (in Russ.).

On the structure of the methodological document, the provisions and methods for assessing the economic efficiency of investment and construction activities

Serov V.M.State University of Management, Moscow, Russia; e-mail: vm_serov@guu.ru

Keywords: investment, investment project, investment, capital investment, economic efficiency, full economic efficiency, domestic national income, entrepreneurial (commercial) efficiency, budget component of full economic efficiency, return on investment / capital investments, profitability of investment / capital investments.

The article is devoted to the problem of assessing the economic efficiency of investment projects and investment activities in the real sector of the economy. The necessity of developing an independent methodological document is shown. The proposed structure, basic principles, methods and calculated indicators for assessing the economic efficiency of investment projects and investment activities at the level of the national economy, territorial and sectoral levels and at the level of enterprises and organizations of the real sector of the economy are described. The novelty of the provisions and methods of assessment consists in using, in assessing the result of investing, in addition to investors’ profit, a category and an indicator of domestic national income at the level of the national economy and its sectors and individual economic entities and, accordingly, the category of full economic efficiency.

References

1. Black A. (ed.) Questions of value: master the latest developments in value-based management, investment and regulation. London: Pearson Education, 2004. 298 p.

2. Daskovskii V.B., Kiselev V.B. A new approach to feasibility study of investment. Moscow, 2015, 400 p. (in Russ.).

3. Serov V.M. On basic approaches and performance indicators in the development of methodological support for investment management // Stroitel’stvo. Ekonomika i upravleniye [Construction. Economics and Management], 2017, no. 3 (27), pp. 22-29 (in Russ.).

4. Serov V.M. On improving the assessment of the economic efficiency of investments in production capital // Investitsii v Rossii [Investment in Russia], 2008, no. 7 (162), pp. 27-35 (in Russ.).

5. Tsarev V.V., Kantorovich A.A. The analysis of the current methodic recommendations on the evaluation of the efficiency of investment projects // Vestniik INZhEKONa. Seriia Ekonomika [Bulletin of INZhEKON. Economic series], 2004, no 2 (3), pp. 91-97. (in Russ).

6. Serov V.M., Bogomolova E.A., Moiseenko N.A. Investment analysis. Moscow, 2018, 248 p. (in Russ.).

7. Pankratov O.E., Pankratov E.P. Problems of increasing the investment and economic potential of construction companies // Ekonomika stroitel’stva [Economics of Construction], 2017, no. 5 (47), pp. 3-17 (in Russ.).

8. Serov V.M. On the criteria and indicators of the efficiency of investment and construction projects // Ekonomika stroitel’stva [Economics of Construction], 2017, no. 4 (46), pp. 54-64 (in Russ.).

9. Lipsits I.V., Kossov V.V. Economic analysis of real investment: a textbook. 3rd edition, revised and expanded. Moscow, 2007, 383 p. (in Russ.).

10. Pankratov O.E., Pankratov E.P. Perfection of the system and methods for calculating depreciation resources for the reproduction of fixed assets // Ekonomika stroitel’stva [Economics of Construction], 2002, no. 4, p. 2 (in Russ.).

11. Tikhonov Iu.P. Evaluating the losses from freezing of capital investments // Ekonomika stroitel’stva [Economics of Construction], 2018, no. 3 (51), pp. 66-77 (in Russ.).

12. Tikhonov Iu.P. The evolution of discounted cash flow: from Leonardo Pisano’s “Liber Abaci” to Irving Fisher’s “The theory of interest” // Zhurnal ekonomicheskoi teorii [Russian Journal of Economic Theory], 2017, no. 1, pp. 141-154 (in Russ.).

Factors depending on effectiveness of investment to objects of commercial real estate

Batoeva E.V., Zorina E.S., Baikal State University, Irkutsk, Russia; e-mail: eleonora_batoeva@mail.ru

Keywords: real estate market, commercial real estate, the efficiency of real estate investment, rental rate.

In a market economy, a key factor in economic development is the large-scale attraction of investment. This leads to an increased demand for investment resources. And along the way, there is a growing demand for effective investment applications. There is a problem associated with the creation of an investment-attractive product, project, sphere on the one hand and the presence of tools for the investor to assess the real effectiveness of such proposals, on the other. Thus, one of the most popular areas of investment application is the commercial real estate market. The commercial real estate market is characterized by features that distinguish it from other markets. At the same time, the existing methods of analysing and assessing the cost-effectiveness of investments in this area do not take into account a number of such features. This leads to problems associated with undervaluation of commercial real estate by investors. https://word-to-html.ru/assets/eaf3b40c/ckeditor/plugins/link/images/anchor.png?t=FB9E") left center / 16px no-repeat; border-width: 1px; border-style: dotted; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 255); width: 16px; min-height: 15px; height: 1.15em; vertical-align: text-bottom;">Therefore, the current task is to develop methods of evaluating investment projects in the commercial real estate sector in order to increase their investment attractiveness. The aim of the work is to identify the key factors that influence the efficiency of investments in commercial real estate. The article highlights the role and importance of commercial real estate as the basis of public production and the base of business activities. The features of the commercial real estate market as an investment application area have been defined. The main areas of investment are highlighted - long-term, short-term and speculative and their features are described. The content and specifics of the commercial real estate management process have been revealed. Attention is paid to the issue of choosing the "right" market segment and object for investment. The main factors influencing the effectiveness of investments in commercial real estate have been highlighted. In the article, the authors detail such a significant factor as the level of rental rates. On the example of the commercial real estate market of the "medium" regional center - Irkutsk, a correlation-regression model has been built and the key factors determining the level of rental rate have been identified: the location and class of real estate. An information database has been set up for the study. In the course of our research, traditional analytical methods, logic, analysis, such as comparative analysis, analysis of statistics were used. As a result, a model was developed for application in the field of investment decisions in the commercial real estate market.

References

1. Serdyukova O. Yu. The definition of the concept of “commercial real estate” // Young Scientist. - 2018. - № 42. - p. 122–126 (in Russ.).

2. Kubasova T. I., Kaverzina L. A., Makarova G. N. Rental housing in Russia: background, problems and development prospects // Baikal Research Journal. - 2018. - № 4. - p. 11 (in Russ.).

3. Asaul A.N. Real Estate Economics. - 2nd ed. - SPb .: Peter, 2018. - p. 89 (in Russ.).

4. Alekseev D. А., Sorokina T. V. The substantial meaning of the discounting procedure // News of the Baikal State University. - 2016, - № 6. - p. 972–979 (in Russ.).

5. Novikova I. Yu. The investment potential of an economic entity in the system of main categories of investments // Baikal Research Journal. - 2016. - № 5. - p. (in Russ.).

6. Ogorodnikova T. V. Nonlinear wave representations in the orthodox economic theory // Baikal Research Journal. - 2016. - № 3. - p. (in Russ.).

7. Belykh T.I., Burdukovskaya A.V., Sherstyankina N.P. Study of pricing in the urban commercial real estate market using econometrics // Izvestia Irkutsk State Economic Academy. - 2016. - № 2. - P. 312–321. (in Russ.).

8. Kozhuhar VM Fundamentals of real estate management. - M .: Dashkov and Co., 2013. - p. 20. (in Russ.).

9. McElroy K. Property Management. - SPb .: Potpourri, 2015. - p. 77. (in Russ.).

10. Marchenko A.V. Economics and property management. - M .: Phoenix, 2017. - p. 52 (in Russ.).

11. Tarasevich EI. Real estate economics. - M .: Publishing House of the ISS, 2017. - p. 84 (in Russ.).

12. Skryabikov KV Analysis of the real estate market of Irkutsk. - Irkutsk, 2018. - p. 34 (in Russ.).

13. Torgashina I. G. Housing construction in times of crisis. URL: http://eizvestia.isea.ru/reader/article.aspx?id=20029 (appeal date: 03/25/2019) (in Russ.).

On the experience of developing low-rise housing construction on the basis of entrepreneurship

Gorbunov A.A., Institute for Problems of Regional Economics RAN, Sankt-Petersburg, Russia; e-mail: Gorbunov39@ BK.ru

Buyanov O.V., Petersburg state economic University, Sankt-Retersburg, Russia

Keywords: housing business; individual housing; development prospects low-rise construction.

The essential content, specificity and features of the most acute socio-economic problems are disclosed.Presented and justified strategic directions for the development of entrepreneurship in low-rise housing construction.The “Belgorod phenomenon” of the development of entrepreneurship in individual housing construction in the countryside is considered. It is argued that for the majority of Russian citizens today just to build a country house is no longer enough - it is necessary that not only the structure itself, but also the natural environment meet modern environmental standards. Conclusions about the prospects for the development of entrepreneurship in low-rise housing construction in the medium and long term are made.

References

1. Nezhnikova E.V. The methodology of forming a new state economic policy in the field of housing: monograph / SIC “Strategy”. M .: MAKS Press, 2015, 252 p. (in Russ.).

2. Gorbunov A. A., Buyanov O. V. State support of entrepreneurship in the field of construction of low-rise housing (text) A. Gorbunov, O. Buyanov // Eurasian International Scientific and Analytical Journal - Problems of the Modern Economy. 2015, No4 (53), p. 224-227 (in Russ.).

3. Keynes, J. M. General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money. Per. from English M .: Progress, 1978, 494 p.

4. Erhard L. Half a Century of Reflections. Speeches and articles. Per. with him. M.: Nauka, LLP "Ordynka", 1996, 606 p. (in Russ.).

5. Abalkin L.I. The role of the state in the formation and regulation of a market economy // Issues of Economics. 1997, No. 6, pp. 4-12 (in Russ.).

6. Tambovtsev V.L. Theoretical questions 6. Official site of the Federal State Statistics Service [Electronic resource] URL: http://www.gks.ru (accessed: 11/14/2018) (in Russ.).

7. Bannikov D. Belgorod phenomenon. [Electronic resource] URL: https://ardexpert.ru/article/10509 (accessed: 11/17/2018) (in Russ.). 8. Pankratov O.E., Pankratov E.P. Improving the system and methods for calculating and using depreciation funds for the reproduction of fixed assets // Construction Economics. 2002, №4, р. 2 (in Russ.).

9. Pankratov E.P., Shevtsov P.A., Chizhankova I.V. Leasing as an economic mechanism for increasing innovation activity in the production sector. On Sat Problems of forming an innovative economy: domestic and foreign experience. Materials of the 1st International Scientific and Practical Conference. Editorial Board: A.N. Larionov et al. 2009, pp.6-16 (in Russ.).

10. Pankratov O.E., Pankratov E.P. Problems of increasing the investment and economic potential of construction enterprises. // Construction Economics. 2017, No. 5 (47), рp. 3-17 (in Russ.).

11. Tetior A.N. Architectural and construction ecology. Sustainable construction. M., 2003, 447 р. (in Russ.).

Forming an intra-company strategy construction complex on the example of Penza regions in the conditions of economic crisis

Khrustalev B.B., Antipov V. A., Penza state University of architecture and construction, Penza, Russia; e–mail: hrustalev_bb@mail.ru

Keywords:intercompany strategy, construction complex, analysis of the construction complex of the Penza region, escrow account, crisis in the construction industry.

The article discusses the intercompany strategy of the construction complex on the example of a single region. The direct essence of the concept of intra-company strategy, the factors affecting its effectiveness are revealed. Identified trends reinforcing the impending economic and construction crisis. The construction complex of the Penza region is analyzed, trends are identified, an assessment of the situation is given. Possible solutions have been identified when using the internal company strategy, the main of which are the search for qualified personnel, retraining of the field of activity, and the search for opportunities to reduce costs per unit of output.

References

1. Problems of functioning of the non-cash payment system in Russia/ Rodionova N.,Gorokhov A. A. / / Innovative economy: prospects for development and improvement. 2017, No. 4 (22). Pp. 192-195.

2. Vyatskova, N. A. On the issue of the essence and classification of risk management methods / N. A. Vyatskova // Problems of Economics and management. Izhevsk. – 2015. – № 9 (49). – p. 15-26.

3. Khrustalev, B. B. the Main activities of the enterprise in modern production conditions / B. B. Khrustalev, Yu. b. Khrustalev //International conference "Science and education" Czech Republic, Prague, 2016. - P. 52-60. 4. Pankratov E. P., Pankratov O. E. Problems of management of loading of capacities of the construction organizations //Ekonomika stroitel'stva [Economics of Construction], 2018, № 4, pp.3-12. 5. Pankratov E. P., Pankratov O. E. on the development of a network of construction organizations and the effectiveness of their integration. //Construction Economics, 2017, №2, p. 73-24. 6. Khrustalev B. B., 6. Chudaykina T. N. Market potential as an element of strategic planning of the enterprise; construction Economics #2 (51) / March-April / 2018. - p. 41-53.

7.Khrustalev B. B., Usatenko A. N., Burlakov D. A. Features of functioning and prospects of development of enterprises of the construction complex of the Penza region; construction Economics. No. 5 (53) / 2018. Pp. 58- 68.

8.Vyatskova N. A. Formation of factor space that affects the economic.; stability of enterprises in the conditions of positive and negative impact of risks / N. A. Vyatskova // Economics, management, Finance: Proceedings of the IV International scientific conference. Perm: Mercury, 2015, Pp. 167-172.

 

Current Issue

Choose Your Language

Authorization